Friday, November 22, 2013

QCon: The Culture Engine; How to build High Performance Teams

Sometimes you run into a workshop that you didn't have any particular expectations for and then your mind is completely blown. That happened to me on the first day of tutorials here at QCon San Francisco. "By whom?" I hear you asking. Well, by Steve Peha and Amr Elssamadisy and heavily supported by Ashley Johnson as part of their full-day workshop on The Culture Engine.

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The goal of this workshop was to learn how to build high-performance teams, something we would all like to achieve, don't we? I myself have learned the hard way that tools, techniques, best practices and a lot of talent isn't enough to reach that goal. In fact, the biggest problems are generally caused by cultural differences that cause invisible impediments in open and respectful communication. I don't think that that observation is really shocking, but what I liked about this workshop is that those guys provided a model that helps us understand the behavior exposed by those very same cultural differences, as well as tools to overcome them.

So what are those impediments? The first one they discussed is the lack of safety. How likely am I going to participate in solving a problem if I don't feel safe enough to speak my mind or take changes, whether it involves a colleague or a supervisor? Of the many tools Amr and Steve shares with us, I liked leveraging your vulnerability. For instance, share your origin story. Where did you come from? What are your goals in life? What choices did you make? Sharing information like that breaks down hierarchies, improves respect and levels the playing field. And if that all feels too soft, consider the foreverness of your current situation. Do you really want to be in this situation forever? Considering that might fuel your sense of safety just enough to do something about it.

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The second impediment is lack of respect. How likely am I to participate in solving a problem if you think I'm an idiot? Because of my tendency to get frustrated quickly if somebody didn’t meet my expectations, this one resonated strongly with me. An essential mindset when dealing with people is to consider that it is not about how you talk with somebody, but how you see that person. In fact, see others as 'other' significantly impedes our ability to work together well. Looking at respect as "re-spect" or "look again" might also trigger you to evaluate the relationship you have with a person once again. Amr claimed that if you don't like somebody, you haven't' talked enough with that person and you should retry. That, and the statement that respect is a gift, was already a key takeaway for me.

So what about some tools to help you regain respect for somebody? Well, be curious and try to focus on the similarities. Know their stories and understand their pride. And make sure you look at that person's character without involving the context in which he is operating right now. Somebody might expose certain behavior not because of his or hers intrinsic character, but because the circumstances that apply.

The third impediment is lack of intention, or in different words, how likely am I to participate in solving a problem if I don't know what you want? Does that make sense? Because it happened to me many times; getting disappointed or irritated because a co-worker didn't do or behave as I expected, but never realizing that I never told hem what I expected in the first place. Suffice to say is being open and clear about what you expect from other people.

The last but not least impediment is lack of ownership. How likely am I to participate in solving a problem if I think it's not my problem? Ownership is a very important phase in a relationship. In fact, it is the strongest state of mind in Christoper Avery's model. And although it may be potentially an expensive way to go, it is always worth the investment. It's this impediment that my current project is suffering from. It's really difficult to expect people to take ownership if you don't give them the freedom to make their own choices. Unfortunately there are no easy tools or strategies to overcome this impediment. However, there are ways to work together that increase the chance that somebody does take ownership; agreeing to work by agreement…

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Working together means that you need to be able trust each other. Trust generally increases if people do what you expected them to do, but gets destroyed very quickly when they don’t. Quite often this fails horribly when people didn’t know what was expected from them in the first place. That's why the act of making agreements is so important. And don’t you think doing that is much easier without the impediments mentioned earlier? At the same time, making agreements that both parties adhere to, might actually increase the respect and ownership the parties feel about this. That's why Amr and Steve conclude that making, keeping, confronting, and renegotiating agreements is the engine of cultural change.

Before explaining how to make agreements it's important to understand what is not considered as an agreement.

  • Agreements that are supposed to be common sense, or 'default' agreements.
  • Agreements that are implied to be part of a role, situation or circumstance.
  • Expectations you might have that you have never explicitly stated.
  • Coercions such as when your boss tells you "You are going to do that for me, right?".
  • Rules introduced without you being there to agree or disagree with.
  • Missions, visions and value statements

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Knowing that, making agreements shouldn't be a big hassle, as long as you make the intention clear and both parties agree and commit to adhering to it. Doing that with a larger group might be a bit trickier though, and generally involves a lot of fruitless and unconstructive discussions. Worse, you might end up with an agreement that only some people will support, but a lot of others (who didn't speak out) sabotage later on without the possibility to confront them on your agreement. A nice technique to overcome that is the Decider Protocol, one of the Core Protocols. Basically it works by you proposing to agree on something and asking a vote for it. Voters may ask questions for clarifications, but discussions are not allowed. Then, if all questions have been answered, each and every person in the group has three options.

  • Thumbs up; the voter fully agrees with the proposal and will commit to it.
  • Thumbs side-ways; the voter has some doubts, but will go along and commit to whatever the outcome of the voting process is.
  • Thumbs down; the voter either disagrees with the proposal and will provide an alternative, or likes to postpone the discussion to a later moment in time.

That last part is an essential difference with traditional voting techniques; the voter cannot just say no to a proposal. He or she must provide an alternative (and potentially better) proposal instead or just go along and commit to the outcome. Of course, sometimes voters just need some time to think about the proposal before they can make the final decision. The lack of discussions is another major advantage that is a very common culprit for not ending up with any decision at the end of a meeting.

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As you might know yourself, keeping agreements isn't always that easy. On the other hand, it is much better to tell somebody early that you cannot meet the agreement anymore and renegotiate a newer one, then to just break it. The latter will seriously harm the trust the other party has in you, whereas the former might actually give him or her the appropriate signals that you do value the agreement, but you just couldn't meet it. Similarly, if the other person is the one that is not meeting the agreement, you can either ignore it, or confront him. You can't correct what you aren't willing to confront. And don't worry, to confront somebody is not the same as a confrontation. You just want to understand why the other party didn't meet the agreement and whether renegotiation is required. To prepare for that, consider the following advice:

  • Make sure you feel safe enough to confront, have respect for the person, feel ownership for the relationship with that person, and make your intention crystal clear.
  • Favor face-to-face communication.
  • Confront in your own unique way (so don't try to behave differently just because that person has a different character).
  • Don't diminish your concern just because you like the person or because of the authority involved.
  • Confronting is personal so don't make it impersonal.
  • Always be closing on a (renewed) agreement.
  • If you can't agree now, agree to agree at another time.
  • Strive for a long-term agreement.

Well, by now, I hope you understand how well safety, respect, ownership and intention work together with making and keeping agreements. It isn't strange that Amr and Steve call this the 'engine of cultural change'. And for me, that really makes sense. Think of it as learning a new habit. You will break some agreements, have compassion for yourself others, confront and renegotiate those broken agreements quickly, and then get back to work.

Just make it a habit for yourself, for your team and for your organization...

Friday, November 15, 2013

Noticeable quotes from QCon San Francisco 2013

As with any conference, speakers and attendees tend to make a lot of interesting, inspiring or funny statements. QCon 2013 was no different. Some key takeaways:

  • “Can't tune until you have real users.”  (Stephen Rylander)
  • "If someone comes in suggesting that we move a release date… we mock them." at the Facebook release process talk (Rich Schoenrock)
  • "We've really worked hard to get rid of the 'hero' inside Twitter." @raffi on twitter's eng team organization (Pete Soderling)
  • “Gain productivity and performance by tuning the use of your stack, not by changing your stack” (Paul McCallick)
  • “Your product should be cutting edge not the technology” in the GitHub talk (Prateek Jain )
  • ”Anyone that wants to write multithreaded code should not be allowed to.” so true. (Christopher Frenning)
  • “No code should be considered completed until someone else is capable of maintaining it.” (Mauro Botelho)
  • "Roll your own solution to your hardest problems, not your easiest ones." (_wee_ )
  • “Rewrites will always fail (that doesn't stop people from trying, though)” (Ronald Harmsen ‏)

These made me smile:

  • "Stability is sexy" (Justin Swartsel)
  • “Following #qconsf makes me feel like I'm on the wrong side of the globe right now. Have fun over there!” (Ralph Winzinger)
  • "The purpose of a change management process is to make sure nothing ever changes" by @tpbrown and @jezhumble (Dave Kichler)
  • “I don't buy iPads. I just go to conferences and win them. Thanks” (Matt O'Keefe)
  • "Once you understand monads, you immediately become incapable of explaining them to anyone else" by Gilad Bracha (Navis )
  • "Software development in teams is all about feelings" by @stevepeha
  • "My 2 year old son can understand this" says @headinthebox about a recursive function in Haskell (Jon Norton)
  • “Not sure whether I’m happy that #qconsf is over or want 3 more days :)” (Vladimir Syerik)
  • “You don’t need to know Category Theory, but we mention it to show how cool we are.” Gilad Bracha (Rick Warren ‏)
  • "Almost every problem in life can be solved by a Broadway musical" by @stevepeha
  • “Just had to do the weirdest thing on a conference ever...looking your neighbor in the eyes for 60 seconds without speaking.” during the culture engine tutorial

QCon Day 3: About JavaScript, Scaling GitHub and Twitter, and Cultural Diversity

Man, it really feels like we've been around for ages, but this is just the 3rd day of QCon San Francisco. After a quick breakfast at the local Starbucks we dropped in on another keynote, right after the daily introduction by all track owners. The keynote was done by Brendan Eich, the inventor of JavaScript, and dealt with the present and future of web development. However, he didn't hide the fact that he was essentially trying to convince us that the next versions of EcmaScript are going to be feature rich, performing like race cars, and solve all the issues JavaScript opponents have been throwing at it. In fact, looking at the amount of bullet points on his slides, it is as the JavaScript committee has been trying to add every single feature of every other programming language around. I did notice how well some of the things align with Microsoft's TypeScript, and support for the lambda expressions is indeed an awesome little gem. On a side note, he did manage to impress us with something really cool; running Unreal in WebGL (provided you have Firefox 22).

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I also attended a follow-up session on Ember, another JavaScript alternative to Knockout and AngularJs. Tom Dale, the author of Ember did a pretty good job highlighting some of the conventions and elegance he was missing in the other frameworks. Within our current project, we've already decided to go for AngularJs, but maybe we should re-evaluate that decision once again.

And just to stay on the JavaScript topic, I also attended a talk on Reactive Extensions for JavaScript, performed by Jafar Husain, an extremely fast-speaking Netflix architect. It seems that Netflix is doing an impressive job, because a lot of the talks on scalability and high-performance services were done by Netflix developers. Anyway, I was happy to see that somebody finally managed to find some good use for Rx. What I particularly liked about his approach is to think of events as collections that you can execute operations on. I've recently attended an internal talk at my employer Aviva Solutions that dealt with Rx for .NET and I was pretty impressed. But since we're mostly doing ASP.NET web sites, we haven't really found some practical use for it. That notion itself might make me think about Rx again, the next time I deal with that. I've recently attended an internal talk at my employer Aviva Solutions that dealt with Rx for .NET and I was pretty impressed. But since we're mostly doing ASP.NET web sites, we haven't really found some practical use for it. Oh, and for those .NET developers that have been using Rx for .NET already, the JavaScript version has practically the same API.

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All that JavaScript was interesting, but what really made this day were the talks from Twitter, GitHub and the Open Space on cultural diversity. For instance, GitHub's Zach Holman shared the many trials and tribulations of moving from a few people to the 250 they have right now. Some of the things they do to deal with the many small and distributed teams are really interesting. As an example, they try to limit the number of meetings that require in-person contact and instead facilitate collaboration by recording all internal talks (they have a dedicated team for that), and providing always-on video conferencing.

But what really struck me is that they don't have any managers. Everything is based on trust. Definitely something a lot of companies can learn from. If you can get your hands on the slides, make sure you check them out. They contain a lot of fresh ideas, but one that really stood out for me is: "Your product should be cutting edge, not your technology". It really covers the no-nonsense mentality that GitHub is showing.

What's interesting is that GitHub puts a lot of emphasis on their values, even though it has been growing ridiculously. And that's something that resonates well with the stuff Pedram Keyani has been sharing with us in his talk on evolving culture and values. Just like Zach said, you should allow failure as well as define your companies values, even if it means making a tradeoff, and make sure your entire company supports those values. I've never thought about these things, but being part of a company that is growing fast, it's easy to see how much those values can help new employees to understand the culture of the company. In fact, if you're hiring new people, you should be verifying whether that persons aligns well with your values. If you don't, you risk people who are fully disconnected from the company's culture.

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We got a similar talk from Raffi Krikorian of Twitter, and again the same ground rules apply here as well. And they put a lot of focus on teams and the learning experience. For instance, the teams (5-7 people) get a lot of freedom to execute an assignment in whatever way then want to do it, using whatever process that works for them. They can publicly accept an assignment and then act fully autonomous. Moreover, it's the team itself that is accountable for everything, never the individual person. In fact, bonuses are always granted to the team as well. Only your salary is affected by the individual performance. And if you don't feel comfortable in the team anymore, just apply the "vote with your feet" rule and move to a different team.

Everything else Twitter does is to support those teams. You want to know what the other teams are doing? Just join one of the many Open Beer sessions where teams show each other what they plan to do and when. Or wander through the corridors and look at the posters teams put up to share their plans. You need certain skills? Just talk to the full-time in-house teachers to setup a training (which is then recorded and posted on YouTube for the rest of the world). In fact, Raffi told us that although they do hire a-class developers, they prefer to train the in-house developers instead (which also keeps it interesting for them). In other words, continuous training is part of their values.

So how do they protect the quality of the code? Well, failure is allowed, provided that you learn from that, but hacks are not. Even better, teams are required to spend 10% of their time on removing technical debt. "You don't have technical debt? I don't believe you!" would be Raffi's reaction. Next to that, a global architecture team exists that are there to assist or advice the teams on anything that is required to maintain quality. Raffi told us that Twitter wants to be best company in the world for developers to work for, and I must admit, this does sound like an awesome company that a lot of others can learn from.

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As if the day couldn't get better, I joined another Open Space session, this time on cultural diversity. I attended two discussions of which the first tried to identify ways to solve different levels of skills within the teams. We concluded that the more common solutions like brown paper sessions, peer reviews and pair programming can really help, at the end of the day, it's much better to accept the differences and allow room for failures.

The other one was proposed by myself to get some feedback on how to help team members that are afraid to ask questions, or are too much focused on solving a problem without verifying they are actually solving the right problem. To overall consensus is that you should start recognizing the differences, asking specific questions and to try to understand the people in your teams on a personal or private level. One way to do that is to organize a kind of recess outside the confines of the office to meet up with other colleagues and talk about the job, the company or whatever you like. Dana Caulder also pointed out that triggering people to ask two questions about something that cause them confusion might help break through the often seen "Yes, I'm doing fine. I fully understand". Another thing that I'm trying to do myself a bit more often is get back at people after a meeting to see if there were any concerns or questions, especially for those that find it difficult to speak out in a large group.

And just in case you don't have anything to do, I got recommended the books Good to Great, Quiet: The Power Of Introverts and Blindspot: Hidden Biases of Good People, as well as a training called Crucial Conversations.

With that, I must conclude that those three days of QCon have brought me an astonishing amount of new insights and ideas, and a lot of inspiration. But wait, we're not done yet. We've still two full days of workshops ahead. Pff, my head is already exploding with new knowledge.

Wednesday, November 13, 2013

QCon Day 2: Persons, Groups and Teams

Although I did get the feeling that QCon isn't at the same quality level as the last time I was here, I did manage to pick up a considerable amount of new ideas and insights on the first day. Not anything mind blowing, but still worth the trip. So let's see what the 2nd day did bring us.

Breakfast...

The day started with a keynote by Keith Adams, a Facebook founding member. He claimed that only 25% of the success of software can be accounted to brilliant teams, tools, frameworks, disciplines and programming languages. The other 75% is added by tuning the system. I'm not sure I fully agree, but I do see that you don't really have a clear understanding of your system's performance until you put it in production. And that's something we do agree on, because he said that if you don't have users, you're not tuning yet (and you shouldn't). I've noticed myself that benchmarks and heuristics don't really give you enough real data to really make your system shine. On the other hand, I think you're already lucky if you managed to pull of a performance or load test in your project. He also started talking on machine learning, but that's a topic that doesn't work for me (yet).

For the second slot, I decided to attend a talk on mobile platforms that should enable you to create mobile apps that can run on iOS, Android and Windows Phone. Since that's a topic that is becoming quite relevant within my current project, I was really looking forward to it. The speaker, Alex Gaber, gave us a short overview of the many tools, platforms and products, but forgot to actually give some decent advice. Worse, he finished within the first 30 minutes of the slot. I couldn't resist the feeling that he didn't really prepare his talk. Nevertheless, I used the remaining time to do some research myself and look at PhoneGap, Appcelerate and Xamarin. It seems that moving towards a native experience is still the prefered approach to get all the functionality of the platform and still a smooth experience. For your reference, I ran into this nice little article that compares Appcelerator to the other platforms. And now that Microsoft has announced a closer cooperation with Xamarin, that platform promised to become even more interesting.

During the break I learned that I missed a great talk on happiness in virtual teams with a lot of valuable tips for ordinary agile team and I liked to learn a bit more about UX design. Consequently, attending the UX virtual team talk sounded like a good idea. I learned about the Design Studio process, an agile approach for UX design tasks and how they use it with virtual teams. Not my cup of tea, but at least I got to bring home another book title I need to read at some point in time: The Lean Startup. I was surprised though that they actually used a group chat to a distributed daily Scrum meeting. I would reckon not being able to see each other as well as read each other's body language is a big impediment.

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After lunch I moved to another virtual team related session hosted by Ashley Johnson, a very experienced agile coach which proved to be capable of involving the audience in a unique fashion. He basically give the audience short assignments that you were supposed to complete with your neighbor. Even better, at some point he even managed to get an entire row of seats to work together to complete little task. And that's also the most important message of this track. The only way to turn a group of people in a team is to give them a task to complete. That may sound like an open door, but it's quite a fundamental notion that really helped me understand why our teams are still not real teams.

We practice Kanban and use a feature-driven approach. We have been doing Scrum for 45 3-week sprints and decided to move to Kanban to better support the continuous nature of our work. However, now teams are missing some of the pressure they were used to in Scrum and a clear goal/purpose. With the insights from this session it is clear we really need to look at finding a way to reintroduce an explicit task or assignment.

Another great analogy that made me rethink some of our teams issues is to consider what happens if the wheels of a car are not aligned properly. You don't need a engineering degree in the automotive industry to understand that a slight misalignment is enough to really spoil the driving experience. In our project we've introduced a lot of principles, rules and guidelines, but I think we've failed to really help the teams understand why we are doing this. E.g. what's the architectural vision? Why did we need to introduce so much complexity? What kind of challenges are ahead of us that might affect our technical design? I'm definitely going to give some attention to that once I'm back at the office. Oh, Ashley also recommended another book titled Agile Adoption Patterns.

For the record, the audience agreed that these were important characteristics of the best teams: humility, helping each other, autonomy, tasks, and clear success criteria. Similarly, they also identified some of the worst things a team can suffer from such as: nano management, fear of failure, personal agendas, tasks per person, competition for leadership or an uneven workload.

Part of the same track was a talk by Dana Caulder on how they managed to overcome some of the cultural and time zone differences when working with teams in the US and Poland. Dana was unlucky to have followed Ashley's track, and she mostly confirmed some of the stuff Ashley has been showing us, but I did learn something from her. In her experience a successful team knows each other well. So a great tip is to always use the time that you have to wait for each other during meetings to small talk on weekend plans, someone's family, their pets or traditions, or to make jokes. It can really increase the cohesion of the teams. Hopefully my colleagues will not look funny at me the next time I'm asking those kinds of questions…

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Since the last slot of the day didn't include a single decent topic, my last session of the day involved another Open Space discussion. I proposed a topic on how to promote the pride of ownership within the teams, as well as encourage developers to feel more responsible of the code base as well as the product. I was lucky to have both Dana and Ashley in our little group. Ashley provided some background on the psychology behind the responsibility of people and basically told us that it is very hard to make people feel responsible for their choices from the outside. It should come from the person him/herself as part of moving through the stages of a responsibility process. However, generally people feel responsible for the choices that they made themselves or things they've opted in. Obviously that resonates well with Ashley's earlier observation that tasks help transforming groups of people into a team.

All in all a very interesting second day. Now it's time for a drink…

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

QCon Day 1: Musicians, Google, Open Space & Netflix

So after all that fun during the first weekend (and about which I’ll blog separately), now it's the time to finally shift our attention to the reason for which we're in San Francisco in the first place; InfoQ's highly rated internal software conference QCon. Since my previous visit to QCon was such an impressive experience, my expectations were high. After dropping off our rental car at Alamo’s, we strolled along Market Street to the new venue, the Hyatt Regency at Embarcadero Center, a longer walk than I expected.

As usual, the keynote was preceded by an introduction of each of the tracks hosted by the corresponding track owners. However, I couldn’t resist the notion that some of them were really not feeling comfortable being on stage. In fact, it all sounded like some kind of obligation they couldn't get away from. Fortunately, the keynote speaker, Rich Hickey, was so much better suited for this. He elaborated on a great analogy between software developers and professional musicians. He explained how musicians always start with ideas about short melodies, cadences and rhythms and use that to compose a harmonious song. In our profession that would be the equivalent of creating small autonomous components and use those to 'compose' a system 'in harmony'. If those components end up to be too complex, then you should really work hard to take them apart. Just accept that a large system will eventually end up as too complex to grasp completely. Instead, focus on the small parts first and then look at the bigger picture.

 

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But he even went further with that. He explained us that instruments are always created for experienced musicians, simply because of the fact that you're only a novice for a short time. So why do we still optimize our code for beginners? Just like musicians practice every day, rather than making our ‘instruments’ (our tools) simpler, we should practice hard as well. Definitely a very inspiring talk, in particular due to the many references to the origins of electronic music (which, as a former fan of Jean-Michel Jarre, really resonated with me).

The 2nd session of the day was done by a Netflix architect, Jeremy Edberg, and dealt with how they managed to get such a scalable and reliable solution, something you would take for granted when using their services. The big 'secret' is that they always design their systems with the assumption that something will go wrong eventually. He mostly showed us how they build custom tools to monitor all their environments, but definitely impressed with the vast amounts of energy they’ve invested in making their systems so resilient against failures. And now that I think of it, I noticed that all those companies start to create their own tools after they’ve grown to a certain scale. Definitely something to remember the next time you’re looking for an off-the-shelve tool to solve your problem.

The slot just before lunch was reserved for an Open Space on architecture. As somebody who really spends a great deal of my time on agile and architecture, I can tell you it was a great experience. First I joined a discussion on agile architecture and how to get the business to understand how important bringing down technical debt is, and why we need time to work on architectural changes. I was glad to hear that this challenge is a universal problem in our profession (and not only mine :-)). The main take away for me was that you should really try to avoid running in stealth mode and spend more energy explaining the business the cost of technical debt.

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I couldn't resist proposing a discussion on Event Sourcing and using it to build occasionally connected system. It was fun to explain a group of experienced architects how and why we used events as a unit of synchronization. The big question was whether I would choose this architecture style again, provided similar requirements. But after some contemplating, my answer is 'most definitely yes'. However, I did emphasize the fact that I underestimated the complexity it introduces, even though I've been talking about this topic for several years now.

After having selected the wrong talk in an already bad slot (the speaker didn't get to his point until after 30 minutes), I decided to check out that new noBackend hype. It was mostly about how a solution that has virtually no backed isn't so susceptible to NSA hacks. By the way, did you hear about this story that some AT&T engineers found a network splitter in their server room, and discovered it was used by the NSA to route all data to their servers for analysis? The speaker, Parker Higgens, was working for a foundation that is supposed to help companies dealing with this NSA issue, but I was mainly surprised that they could even talk about all this in public.

A talk I was looking forward to was the one where Rachel Laycock would explain us how to adapt your architecture to facilitate continuous delivery. She discussed a lot of architectural and design principles, in particular Conway's Law, but what I missed is how she would approach teaching existing teams about this principles in such a way they'd really get it. Don't get me wrong though, all of what she says makes sense and aligns perfectly with my own ideas, but it's the challenge convincing other people about it that's the difficult part of our job. I’m sure going to have a chat with her somewhere this week.

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One session I did get a lot out of it is the one on how Google has setup their developer workflow. In our current project we've recently started using feature branches to move towards a more stable trunk. But just imagine the surprise when I learned Google has about 10000 developers all checking in on the trunk about 20 times a minute. But after learning their aggressive testing strategy and how they've optimized their automated build-and-test pipeline I've gained a renewed goal to improve ours as well. They don’t even have a traditional QA group anymore. Developers are held responsible and they facilitate the testing efforts by injecting a test engineering professional into each team. In fact, test evangelism is a quintessential aspect of the developer workflow. A good example is the Testing On The Toilet practice, a single page of new ideas and experiences that developers are encouraged to read at the toilet. How's that about dedication…

 

After serving all those beers, I was surprised to see how many attendees appeared at the post-day keynote. On the other hand, that proves once again that the QCon audience generally has a lot of passion. Well, the fact that we’re still here at 19:30 proves ours as well…